Journal Port Science Research <p>journal published by The University of Uruk, Iraq, in cooperation with Bryant University, USA and supported The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Launched in the year 2018 as the official University of Uruk journal. The journal covers the topics include but are not limited. The journal adopted a policy of publishing four types of science every four months. The first issue is concerned with APPLIED MEDICAL SCIENCE specialties, the second issue is with TRANSACTION ON ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY AND THEIR APPLICATIONS specialties, the third issue is with LAW SCIENCES, and the fourth issue is with MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS SCIENCES. Journal has own managing EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, for each of these sciences.</p> <p>A partnership has been adopted with the Publons institution, to extend highly qualified peer review evaluators, and the journal counts with a wide pool of prestigious reviewers selected based on accordance with articles closely related to submitted manuscript awaiting evaluation. It is expected that the manuscripts advanced will be processed and proofread within three months. Journal have an Open Access (DOA) Publishing is a not-for-profit publishing practice, the journal is fully funded by Uruk University, Baghdad, Iraq and is available "free to publish and free to read". The manuscripts submitted to the journal are also subject to a linguistic and grammatical review and adopt the academic plagiarism detector system.</p> en-US (Journal Port Science Research) (Thamer Ata Jabbar Oboodi) Fri, 05 Jan 2024 05:23:06 +0300 OJS 60 Herbal Extract and White Spot Lesion: A Review <p>One of the most important complications of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of white spot lesions (WSL) which represent the first clinical observation of dental caries. Fluoride is an efficient prophylaxis for WSL; however, its excessive use may lead to fluorosis. In addition, other chemicals (e.g., chlorhexidine) that have bactericidal effects may negatively affect the oral microflora. In the last decade, interest has shifted to using natural products that have beneficial effects on health. Using dental products (toothpaste, mouthwash, or oral gel) containing herbal extracts, has been shown to inhibit pathogenesis of cariogenic bacteria and consequently reduces enamel demineralization. Future longitudinal and in vivo studies are needed to explore the advantages and disadvantages of dental products containing herbs.</p> Dina H. Obaid, Rusul J. Hadi, Alaa F Albo Hassan, Nameer Al-Taai Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Port Science Research Fri, 05 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Verifying The Association Between IL6 -174G/C Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p>Background : Diabetes mellitus, also known as blood sugar, is a series of metabolic disorders described by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), low blood glucose (hypoglycemia), or both, resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Numerous studies have shown that interleukin (IL-6) acts on skeletal muscle cells , liver cells, and pancreas cells to influence glucose balance and metabolism, which directly or indirectly contributes to the development of diabetes. Research in this area is crucial because diabetes is recognized as a major risk factor for many diseases like Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic Neuropathy , heart disease and others.&nbsp; Patients and methods : In this study, we tested three of genotypes GG; GC ; CC for IL6 -174G/C polymorphism to determine its association with type 2 diabetes and its effect on insulin. One hundred T2DM patients and 100 clinically healthy participants were enrolled in the study<strong>.&nbsp; Results and Conclusion</strong> : Based on the results presented by the researcher, the three genetic polymorphisms GG, GC, and CC of the IL6-174G/C polymorphism did not appear to be associated with type 2 diabetes or determine the course of the disease. Given society’s demand for radical solutions and the necessity of reducing the increasing number of deaths every year, these findings underscore the need for continued research into understanding the complex interplay of factors that contribute to diabetes-related complications.</p> Nawfal. N. Al-azzawi , Maysoon. K. Hussein, Muna I. Khalaf Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Port Science Research Sat, 24 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Spectrophotometric Determination of Uric Acid in Samples of Urine <p>A fade of the hexadecyltrimethylammonium-o-hydroxyhydroquinonephthalein-palladium (II) complex was used to quantify uric acid (UA), a spectrophotometric technique that is both straightforward and very sensitive. The effective molar absorbance at 635 nm complies with Beer's law over a range of concentration of 0.01 g ml<sup>-1</sup>, <strong>with a relative standard deviation of 6.50 × 10<sup>5</sup> dm<sup>3</sup>/ (˂1.5%). &nbsp;</strong>Overall, UA was recovered in the range of 98-100% across all samples, with values <strong>were of relative standard deviation (RSD) &lt; 3.0%.</strong> <strong>&nbsp;</strong>This review paper is based on the elaborate work [1], giving rise to very accurate for uric acid assay using <strong>UV-VIS spectrometry system</strong>, which is about 20 times more sensitive than other methods reported elsewhere. Human urine uric acid assays using this technique were of high accuracy.</p> Abbas. H. Al-Shukry, Zain E. Mansor, Nada. A. Abd Al -Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Port Science Research Sun, 28 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Decreased expression of IL-4 Gene and Exploring of mutable lymphotoxin alpha (TNF-β) gene in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus <p>Rapid genetic system identification characterizes the complex illness known as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The classic cytokine, IL-4, is known to stimulate the Th2 route of differentiation and to effectively inhibit the Th1 response. The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been linked to immunological and genetic variables. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the gene expression of IL-4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and explore potential links between the functional Interleukin-4 gene and SLE. Additionally, lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) is a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of SLE. In SLE, cytokines have a significant role in controlling lymphocyte function.</p> Wasnaa J. Mohammad, Noor. A. Ibrahim, Shahad F. Obeid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Port Science Research Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Investigation the Relationship Between Myonectin Levels and Both Lipid Profiles and Liver Function Tests in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients <p>Myonectin, or CTRP12, is a relatively recent adipokine—a protein released by adipose tissue that has gained interest in the context of metabolic health, including its possible implications in diabetic complications. Volunteers were divided into three groups, healthy subjects as controls (group A), they don't suffer from any disease, patients with T2D without nephropathy&nbsp; (group B) and T2D with nephropathy (group C), the age ranges between (35-70) years and the average duration disease of T2D (5-25) years, attending to the AL-Kindi teaching hospital, Baghdad Iraq. There was a highly significant increase P ≤ 0.01 of FBS, Insulin level, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, TC, TG, HDL and TSB among different groups (T2D with nephropathy, T2D without nephropathy, and control), a highly significant increase P ≤ 0.01 of myonectin levels among different groups. There was no significant difference present in AST <em>U</em>/<em>L, and </em>ALP <em>U</em>/<em>L.</em> A statistically significant increase in ALT <em>U</em>/<em>L</em> when compared with the control group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Levels of serum myonectin were significantly higher in patients with (T2D without nephropathy) as compared with ( T2D with nephropathy) and the control group.</p> Zahraa. M. Ismail, Falah S. Al-Fartusie, Noor. T. Tahir, Ahmed H. Ismail Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Port Science Research Sat, 03 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Simultaneous Determination of Iron and Copper in Aqueous Solution Using Spectrophotometry <p>Iron and copper mixtures were quantitatively determined in aqueous solutions for the first time using the analytical method in this approach with the aid of T60U Spectrophotometer. The method is so simple, fast, economic, and can be carried out easily on a bench. The absorbencies for iron, copper and iron-copper mixtures in aqueous solution were measured using T60U adopted with UVWin6 software UV -VIS Spectrometer (pg instruments United Kingdom) by filling two 5 ml quartz cells of dimensions 1*1*5 cm, the first is filled with the blank solution which is a solution containing all the constituents of the sample except iron and copper and the other quartz cell is filled with the stock solution iron and/or copper under investigation. Absorbency of iron was determined by setting T60U spectrometer wavelength at 504 nm, meanwhile for copper absorbency measurements the apparatus is set at 304 nm. Iron, copper, and iron-copper mixture calibration curves were of very high accuracy with the least linear regression value of ≤ 1, i, e the measured data were of relative standard deviation value (RSD) of ≤ 1.5%.</p> Abbas. H. Al-Shukry, Zain E. Mansor, Nada. A. Abd Al -Hussein Al -Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Port Science Research Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300